Campaign to reclaim future opposing the corporate "development" agenda | Greenwatch Dhaka | The leading online daily of Bangladesh

Campaign to reclaim future opposing the corporate “development” agenda

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AID/WATCH, Australia has launched a campaign to oppose the corporate development agenda being promoted by multilateral agencies at the cost of peoples’ goals for sustainable development. A canpaign statement prepared by it has been circulatged worldwide for endorsement by people’s organisations working for sustainable development. The statement is as follows
In the face of overwhelming evidence of persistent poverty, deepening inequality, ecological destruction, unprecedented loss of biodiversity and climate change accelerating under neoliberal capitalist development, governments have set 2015 as the year when they chart a new course for humanity – a path toward “sustainable development” that “leaves no one behind” and protects the planet.In September of this year, Heads of States and Governments will gather at the United Nations (UN) headquarters in New York City to agree on a new set of “Sustainable Development Goals” (SDGs) and a “global plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”. This new “Post-2015 development agenda” succeeds the Millennium Development Goals, which are supposed to have been achieved by 2015. This new agenda promises to “transform our world” by 2030.
However, many of these same governments, particularly the more powerful ones among them, are also currently negotiating new “free trade” deals across regions such as the Transpacific Partnership Agreement, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, Trade-in-Services-Agreement and Economic Partnership Agreements, among many others that will have far-reaching implications for peoples in both the global North and South and for the future of the world economy. Like the World Trade Organization, these new trade agreements promise prosperity for all as a result of greater trade and investments across borders.
And yet all indications suggest that these agreements as they are currently framed and when adopted side-by-side, will not usher a new dawn for humanity. Instead they are likely to further concentrate power and wealth in the hands of the 1% on the one hand, and deepen the dispossession, exploitation and oppression of peoples and environmental plunder on the other.
The emerging elite consensus on “development” for the post-2015 era aims for more business than usual. Not only does it hold up the private sector as the driver of growth and innovation, it promotes private finance as the fuel of development.
Governments are aggressively promoting Public Private Partnerships which shift the risks associated with large investments to the public while ensuring huge profits for large corporate investors through various forms of government guarantees and subsidies.
Infrastructure development alone—in energy, transport, water and sanitation, agriculture, ICT, and so on—offer up to $1 trillion worth of investment opportunities per year.
Allowing and encouraging private finance to “invest” in development projects such as large infrastructure projects or social services bundled up as new “asset classes” would also intensify pressures for “cost-recovery” and greater commercialization, if not downright privatization of public services. More projects likely would be directed at profitable sectors and facilitating the global production and trading of multinational corporations (MNCs) instead of prioritizing the needs of impoverished and marginalized
sectors. We can expect a more aggressive implementation of mega-infrastructure projects that are often associated with landgrabbing, gentrification, forced evictions, massive displacements and other human rights violations affecting indigenous peoples, campesinos, rural and urban communities, especially but not only in the global South.
Yet, by claiming to contribute to the achievement of “sustainable development goals,” large corporations seek to enhance their public image even as many of them continue to violate workers’ rights, the environment and the public interest with impunity.
Indeed, the so-called 21st century trade agreements, secretly being negotiated by governments worldwide, would erect a global legal framework that strengthens corporate rights over people’s rights and the environment. Not only do they strengthen MNC’s control over production and trade of goods and services within and across borders, they also hamper governments from regulating the operations of MNCs, and prevent underdeveloped countries from actively promoting industrialization and sustainable
development. Indeed they would empower MNCs to sue governments for implementing policies that would potentially harm investors’ “rights” to profit even when they are intended to promote the public interest. This would belie governments’ commitment to the realization of human rights and the attainment of the new SDGs.
If these agreements shape the policy agenda for sustainable development for the coming decades, then we can expect a new wave of privatization and financialisation with even more dire consequences than the old Washington consensus.
Therefore, we demand that governments:
Uphold the primacy of human rights. States must acknowledge that they bear the primary responsibility to ensure that both their agents and other nonstate actors—whether corporations or multilateral institutions—adhere to human rights norms and standards in their conduct affecting people and communities. The new development agenda must be clear and explicit about, and faithfully monitor
states’ extraterritorial human rights obligations, especially in the field of economic, social and cultural rights, as well as the right to development.
International agreements that exact obligations that run contrary to states’ duty to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights must be declared illegitimate, immoral and therefore invalid. No international agreement should be negotiated in secret and without public participation or support. Indeed there should be strong support and enabling environment for the participation of people and their organizations
in decisions that affect their lives and future generations.
Tackle inequality and the overconcentration of wealth. Governments must implement redistributive measures to address inequality, going beyond the rhetoric of leaving no one behind. Governments must commit to clear targets for achieving more equality in the distribution of incomes and ownership of
productive resources including land, finance, technology, services, and industries.
Governments should commit to promoting and scaling up solidarity-based, traditional, collective and public forms of ownership, especially for women and other marginalized groups in society. The international community should cancel all illegitimate debts of countries, remedy unfair trade and taxation regimes that rob poorer countries of trillions of dollars a year, and stop the unsustainable
extraction of resources from underdeveloped countries.
Rein in corporate power. Governments should adopt a strong independent regulatory framework for business and the financial sector to ensure that they respect human rights and are held accountable when they do not. Rather than rely on corporate self-regulation and voluntarism, governments must enforce right-to-know provisions and mandatory public disclosure for multinational corporations; require independent accounting of their production and commercial operations as well as independent technology assessments; require participatory human rights impact assessments; free prior and informed consent for indigenous peoples; establish mechanisms for redress; and penalties for corporate infractions and
violations of human rights and nature.
Address the climate crisis. Governments should commit to limit global temperature rise to 1.5C through drastic emission cuts and fair-sharing of the global carbon budget that takes into account per capita historical emissions, without resorting to carbon trading or offsets. This must be accompanied by clear
commitments on the delivery of adequate and appropriate climate finance and technology for mitigation actions in the South. The burden of this transition must be borne by the advanced industrialized countries, the biggest corporations and the wealthiest classes globally and within each country who have exploited people and the planet the most.
Without these minimum transformative reforms, the development agenda for the post-2015 era will not make a dent on the structural conditions that breed poverty, inequality, environmental degradation, violence and multiple crises. Even worse, it may serve as a veil for further strengthening corporate power and reinforcing neocolonial relations between rich and poor countries.
Therefore we are ever ready to mobilize, to hold our governments to account, to stimulate public debate and engagement, and promote development justice for all. Above all, we affirm our commitment to fight poverty, inequality and injustice by bringing an end to all structures of exploitation and oppression, by asserting our inalienable right not simply to live but to live with dignity, solidarity and care for people and nature. – Campaign for Peoples Goals for Sustainable Development, AID/WATCH, Australia
Given below is the revised draft of the outcome document for the UN Summit on the Post-2015 Development Agenda which is scheduled to be finalised by the working group on 31 July next for for the UN Summit on the Post-2015 Development Agenda being held from 25 to 27 September 2015, in New York.
TRANSFORMING OUR WORLD:
THE 2030 AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
OUTCOME DOCUMENT FOR THE UN SUMMIT TO ADOPT THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA: DRAFT FOR ADOPTION
Preamble
This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity that also seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom. All countries and all stakeholders, acting in collaborative partnership, will implement this people-centred Agenda. We are resolved to free the human race within this generation from the tyranny of poverty and want and to heal and secure our planet for the present and for future generations. We are determined to take the bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path. As we embark on this collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind.
The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets which we are announcing today demonstrate the scale and ambition of this new universal Agenda. Eradication of poverty in all its forms and dimensions and ending hunger remains the greatest challenge facing our world today. These goals and targets are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. They seek to realize the human rights of all and to achieve gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls.
The Goals and targets build on the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals and seek to address their unfinished business. We acknowledge that sustainable development and peace are mutually reinforcing.
The Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next fifteen years in the following areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet:
People
We want to ensure that all human beings can fulfil their potential. We want to end poverty in all its forms and dimensions; end hunger and malnutrition; achieve food security; promote human dignity; combat inequalities in and between countries; achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls; ensure quality education, water and sanitation and a healthy life for all; ensure equal access to natural resources, a healthy environment and well-being for all; and secure the participation of all people and groups, including children, persons with disabilities, migrants and indigenous peoples, in the realization of the Goals and targets.
Planet
We must respect and safeguard our common home. We want to protect the planet so that it can support the needs of present and future generations. Sound management of natural resources underpins economic and social development. We will conserve and sustainably use our oceans and seas; conserve freshwater resources; promote sustainable patterns of consumption and production; take urgent action to combat climate change; protect and restore ecosystems; promote sustainable forest management; combat desertification, land degradation and biodiversity loss; promote safe and inclusive cities and human settlements; and promote disaster risk reduction and resilience.
Prosperity
We want all human beings to enjoy the fruits of economic, social and technological progress and live productive and fulfilling lives. We want to ensure sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth; promote decent work and employment for all; strengthen productive capacities, foster innovation, shared prosperity and sustainable patterns of consumption and production; promote sustainable industrialization, agriculture and infrastructure; and ensure access to affordable, reliable and sustainable modern energy services.
Peace
Sustainable development cannot be realised without peace and security; and peace and security will be at risk without sustainable development. We want all people to live in peaceful, safe and inclusive societies, free from fear, coercion and violence. We want to strengthen governance and to build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels as well as to strengthen the rule of law, to ensure equal access to justice for all and to protect the human rights of all men, women, boys and girls.
Partnership
We want to revitalise an effective Global Partnership for Sustainable Development embracing all countries and stakeholders. The Global Partnership will mobilize the means required for implementation of the Agenda, acting in a spirit of strengthened global solidarity and supporting, in particular, the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable by focussing on a people-centred approach to development.
The interlinkages and integrated nature of the Sustainable Development Goals are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised. If we achieve our ambitions across the full extent of the Agenda, the lives of all will be profoundly improved and our world will be transformed for the better.
Introduction
1.    We, the Heads of State and Government and High Representatives, meeting at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 25-27 September 2015 as the Organization celebrates its seventieth anniversary, have decided today on new global Sustainable Development Goals.
2.    On behalf of the peoples we serve, we have adopted a historic decision on a comprehensive, people-centred and far-reaching set of universal and transformative Goals and targets. We commit ourselves to working tirelessly for the full implementation of this Agenda by 2030. Realizing our ambitions will change for the better the world in which we all live.
3.    We recognize that eradicating poverty in all its dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. We are committed to achieving sustainable development in its three dimensions – economic, social and environmental – in a balanced and integrated manner. We will also build upon the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals and seek to address their unfinished business. We resolve, between now and 2030, to end poverty and hunger everywhere; to combat inequalities within and between countries; to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies; to protect human rights and promote gender equality; to ensure the lasting protection of the planet and its natural resources; and to create conditions for sustainable, inclusive and sustained economic growth, shared prosperity and decent work for all, taking into account different levels of national development and capacities.
4.    As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is fundamental, we wish to see the Goals and targets met for all nations and for all people. And we will endeavour to reach the furthest behind first.
5.    This is an Agenda of unprecedented scope and significance. It is accepted by all countries and is applicable to all, taking into account different national circumstances, principles and priorities. These are universal goals and targets which involve the entire world, rich and poor countries alike. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental.
6.    The Goals and targets are the result of over two years of intensive public consultation and engagement with civil society and other stakeholders around the world, which paid particular attention to the voices of the poorest and most vulnerable. This consultation included valuable work done by the General Assembly Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals and by the United Nations, whose Secretary-General provided a synthesis report in December 2014.
7.    This is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity, which also seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom. It will be implemented by all of us acting in genuine and lasting partnership based on mutual respect. We are resolved to free the human race from the tyranny of poverty in all its forms and dimensions and to heal and secure our planet for present and future generations.  We are determined to take the bold and transformative steps needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path.
Our vision
8.    In these Goals and targets, we are setting out a supremely ambitious and transformational vision. Poverty eradication in all its forms and dimensions is the overarching priority and central imperative of the Agenda. We envisage a world free of poverty, hunger, disease and want, where all life can thrive. We envisage a world free of fear and violence. A world with equitable and universal access to quality education at all levels and to health care and social protection, where physical, mental and social well-being are assured. A world where the right to have access to safe and affordable drinking water is universally realized; where food is sufficient, safe, affordable and nutritious; where there is adequate and accessible sanitation. A world where human habitats are safe, resilient and sustainable and where there is universal access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy.
9.    We envisage a world of universal respect for human rights and human dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and non-discrimination; of respect for race, ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal opportunity permitting the full realization of human potential and contributing to shared prosperity. A world which cherishes its children and in which every woman and girl enjoys full gender equality and all legal, social and economic barriers to their empowerment have been removed. A world in which every child grows up free from violence and exploitation. A just, equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world in which the needs of the most vulnerable are met.
10.    We envisage a world in which every country enjoys robust, sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth in order to generate resources for the eradication of poverty in all its forms and dimensions and the achievement of sustainable development. A world in which consumption and production patterns and use of all natural resources – from air to land to oceans and seas – are sustainable. One in which development and the application of technology are climate-sensitive, respect biodiversity and are resilient. One in which humanity lives in harmony with nature and in which wildlife and other living species are protected.
Our shared principles and commitments
11.    The new Agenda is guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including full respect for international law. It is grounded also in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Millennium Declaration, the 2005 World Summit Outcome document, international human rights treaties and other instruments such as the Declaration on the Right to Development.
12.    We recall the outcomes of all major UN conferences and summits which have laid a solid foundation for sustainable development and have helped to shape the new Agenda. These include the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; the World Summit on Sustainable Development; the World Summit for Social Development; the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their respective review conferences; and the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (“Rio+ 20”) and its follow-up, including the outcomes of the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States; the second United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries and the Sendai Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction.
13.    We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as set out in principle 7 thereof.
14.    The challenges and commitments contained in these major conferences and summits are interrelated and call for integrated solutions. To address them effectively, a new approach is needed. Sustainable development recognizes that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, combatting inequality, preserving the planet and creating sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth are linked to each other and are interdependent.
Our world today
15.    We are meeting at a time of immense challenges to sustainable development. Billions of our citizens continue to live in poverty and are denied a life of dignity. There are rising inequalities within and between states. There are enormous disparities of opportunity, wealth and power. Unemployment, particularly youth unemployment, is a major concern. Global health threats, natural disasters, spiralling conflict, violent extremism, humanitarian crises and forced displacement of persons threaten to reverse much of the development progress made in recent decades. Natural resource depletion and adverse impacts of environmental degradation, including desertification, drought, land degradation and ocean acidification, add to and exacerbate the list of challenges which humanity faces. Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and its negative impacts undermine the ability of all countries to achieve sustainable development. The survival of many societies, and of the biological support systems of the planet, are at risk.
16.    It is also, however, a time of immense opportunity. Significant progress has been made in meeting many development challenges. Within the past generation, hundreds of millions of people have emerged from extreme poverty. Access to education has greatly increased for both boys and girls. The spread of ICT and global interconnectedness has great potential to accelerate human progress, to bridge the digital divide and to develop knowledge societies, as does scientific and technological innovation across areas as diverse as medicine and energy.
17.    Almost fifteen years ago, the Millennium Development Goals were agreed. These provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas. But the progress has been uneven, particularly in Africa, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing States, and some of the MDGs remain off-track, in particular those related to maternal, newborn and child health and to reproductive health. We recommit ourselves to the full realization of all the MDGs, including the off-track MDGs, in particular by providing focussed and scaled-up assistance to least developed countries. The new Agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals and seeks to complete what these did not achieve, particularly in reaching the most vulnerable.
18.    In its scope, however, the framework we are announcing today goes far beyond the MDGs. Alongside continuing development priorities such as poverty eradication, health, education and food security and nutrition, it sets out a wide range of economic, social and environmental objectives. It also promises more peaceful and inclusive societies. It also, crucially, defines means of implementation. Reflecting the integrated approach that we have decided on, there are deep interconnections and many cross-cutting elements across the new Goals and targets.
The new Agenda
19.    We are announcing today 17 Sustainable Development Goals with 169 associated targets which are integrated and indivisible. Never before have world leaders pledged common action and endeavour across such a broad and universal policy agenda. We are setting out together on the path towards sustainable development, devoting ourselves collectively to the pursuit of global development and of “win-win” cooperation which can bring huge gains to all countries and all parts of the world. We reiterate that every state has, and shall freely exercise, full permanent sovereignty over its wealth and natural resources. We will implement the Agenda for the full benefit of all, for today’s generation and for future generations. In doing so, we reaffirm our commitment to international law and emphasize that the Agenda is to be implemented in a manner that is consistent with the rights and obligations of states under international law, taking into account different national circumstances, capacities and priorities.
20.    This is an Agenda which seeks to respect, protect and fulfil all human rights. It will work to ensure that human rights and fundamental freedoms are enjoyed by all without discrimination on grounds of race, ethnicity, colour, sex, age, language, religion, culture, migration status, political or other opinion, national or social origin, economic situation, birth, disability or other status.
21.    Realizing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls will make a crucial contribution to progress across all the Goals and targets. The achievement of full human potential and of sustainable development is not possible if one half of humanity continues to be denied its full human rights and opportunities. Women and girls must enjoy equal access to quality education, economic resources and political participation as well as equal opportunities with men and boys for employment, leadership and decision-making at all levels. We will work for a significant increase in investments to close the gender gap and strengthen support for institutions in relation to gender equality and the empowerment of women at the global, regional and national levels. All forms of gender-based discrimination and violence against women and children will be eliminated, including through the engagement of men and boys. The systematic mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the implementation of the Agenda is crucial.
22.    The new Goals and targets will come into effect on 1 January 2016 and will guide the decisions we take over the next fifteen years. All of us will work to implement the Agenda within our own countries and at the regional and global levels. We will at the same time take into account different national realities, including capacities and levels of development, and culture. We will respect national policies and priorities and policy space for economic growth, in particular for developing states, while remaining consistent with relevant international rules and commitments. We acknowledge also the importance of the regional and sub-regional dimensions, regional economic integration and interconnectivity in sustainable development. Regional and sub-regional frameworks can facilitate the effective translation of sustainable development policies into concrete action at national level.
23.    Each country faces specific challenges in its pursuit of sustainable development. The most vulnerable countries and, in particular, African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states deserve special attention, as do countries in situations of conflict and post-conflict countries. There are also serious challenges within many middle-income countries.
24.    Sections of the population who are vulnerable and must be empowered, and whose needs are reflected in the goals and targets, include children, youth, persons with disabilities (of whom more than 80% live in poverty), older persons, indigenous peoples, migrants regardless of migration status, refugees and internally displaced persons. People living in areas affected by conflict, terrorism and humanitarian emergencies are also experiencing severe challenges.
25.    We are committed to ending poverty in all its forms, including extreme poverty, by 2030. All people must enjoy a basic standard of living, including through social protection systems. We are also determined to end hunger and malnutrition and to achieve food security as a matter of priority. We will devote resources to developing rural areas and supporting small farmers, especially women farmers, herders and fishers.
26.    We commit to providing inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels – early childhood, primary, secondary, tertiary, technical and vocational training. All people, irrespective of gender, age, race, ethnicity, or migration status, and including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, children and youth in vulnerable situations, should have access to life-long learning opportunities that help them acquire the knowledge and skills needed to exploit opportunities and to participate fully in society. We will strive to provide children and youth with a nurturing environment for the full realization of their rights and capabilities, turning a ‘youth bulge’ into a ‘youth dividend’, including through supportive and strong families, schools and communities, all of which contribute to sustainable development.
27.    To promote physical health and well-being and to extend life expectancy for all, we must achieve universal health coverage and access to quality health care. No one must be left behind. We commit to accelerating the progress made to date in reducing newborn, child and maternal mortality by ending all such preventable deaths before 2030. We are committed to ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services, including for family planning, information and education. We will equally accelerate the pace of progress made in fighting malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis, Ebola and other communicable diseases and epidemics, including by addressing growing anti-microbial resistance and the problem of unattended diseases affecting developing countries. We are committed to devoting greater efforts to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, including behavioural and developmental disorders, which constitute a major challenge for sustainable development.
28.    We will seek to build strong economic foundations for all our countries. Sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth is essential for prosperity. This will only be possible if wealth is shared and income inequality is addressed. We will work to build dynamic, sustainable, innovative and people-centred economies, promoting youth employment and women’s economic empowerment, in particular, and decent work for all. We will eradicate forced labour and human trafficking and eliminate all the worst forms of child labour. All countries stand to benefit from having a healthy and well-educated workforce with the knowledge and skills needed for productive and fulfilling work and full participation in society. We will adopt policies which increase productive capacities, productivity and productive employment; financial inclusion; sustainable agriculture, pastoralist and fisheries development; sustainable industrial development; universal access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy services; sustainable transport systems; and resilient infrastructure.
29.    We commit to making fundamental changes in the way that our societies produce and consume goods and services. Governments, international organizations, the business sector and other non-state actors and individuals must contribute to changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns. We encourage the implementation of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production. All countries take action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries. This should be done through the mobilization, from all sources, of financial and technical assistance to strengthen developing countries’ scientific, technological and innovative capacities to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production.
30.    States are strongly urged to refrain from promulgating and applying any unilateral economic, financial or trade measures not in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations that impede the full achievement of economic and social development, particularly in developing countries.
31.    We will address decisively the threat posed by climate change and environmental degradation. The global nature of climate change calls for the widest possible international cooperation aimed at holding the increase in global average temperature below 2 degrees or 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. Noting the ongoing UNFCCC negotiations, and looking ahead to the COP21 conference in Paris in December, we call on all States to work for a comprehensive and ambitious climate agreement. [For consideration: We recall that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides that parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.]
32.    We recognise that social and economic development depends on the sustainable management of our planet’s natural resources. We are therefore determined to conserve and sustainably use oceans and seas, as well as mountains and dry-lands and to protect biodiversity, ecosystems and wildlife. We are also determined to promote sustainable tourism, tackle water scarcity, desertification, land degradation and drought and to promote resilience and disaster risk reduction. We will achieve this by promoting sustainable development and decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation.
33.    We recognize that sustainable urban development and management are crucial to the quality of life of our people. We will work with local authorities and communities to renew and plan our cities and human settlements so as to foster community cohesion and personal security and to stimulate innovation and employment. We will reduce the negative impacts of urban activities and of chemicals which are hazardous for human health and the environment, including through the environmentally sound management and safe use of chemicals, the reduction and recycling of waste and more efficient use of water and energy. And we will work to minimize the impact of cities on the global climate system. We will also take account of population trends and projections in our national, rural and urban development strategies and policies.
34.    Sustainable development cannot be realized without peace and security; and peace and security will be at risk without sustainable development. The new Agenda recognizes the need to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies that provide equal access to justice and that are based on respect for human rights (including the right to development), on effective rule of law and on transparent, effective and accountable institutions. Factors which give rise to violence, insecurity and injustice, such as inequality, corruption, poor governance and illicit financial and arms flows, are addressed in the Agenda. We must redouble our efforts to resolve or prevent conflict and to support post-conflict countries, including through ensuring that women have a role in peace-building and state-building. In accordance with relevant UN resolutions, we commit to remove the obstacles to the full realization of the right of self-determination of peoples living under colonial and foreign occupation, which continue to adversely affect their economic and social development as well as their environment.
35.    We recognize that international migration is a multi-dimensional reality of major relevance for the development of countries of origin, transit and destination, and that coherent and comprehensive responses are required. We will cooperate internationally to ensure safe, orderly and regular migration involving full respect for human rights and the humane treatment of migrants (regardless of  migration status), of refugees and of displaced persons. Such cooperation should also strengthen the resilience of communities hosting refugees, particularly in developing countries. We commit to protect our citizens living abroad and to re-integrate retired migrant workers who return to their countries of origin.
36.    We pledge to foster inter-cultural understanding, tolerance, mutual respect and an ethic of global citizenship and shared responsibility. We acknowledge the natural and cultural diversity of the world and recognize that all cultures and civilizations can contribute to, and are crucial enablers of, sustainable development.
37.    Sport is also an important enabler of sustainable development. We recognize the growing contribution of sport to the realization of development and peace in its promotion of tolerance and respect and the contributions it makes to gender empowerment and that of young people, individuals and communities as well as to health, education and social inclusion objectives.
Means of Implementation
38.    We recognize that each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development. The new Agenda deals with the means required for implementation of the Goals and targets. We recognize that these will involve the mobilization of financial resources as well as capacity-building, the transfer of technologies as mutually agreed and a wide range of other supportive policies and measures on favourable terms, including preferential terms for developing countries. Public finance, both domestic and international, will play a vital role in providing essential services and public goods and in catalyzing other sources of finance. We acknowledge the role of the diverse private sector, ranging from micro-enterprises to cooperatives to multinationals, and that of civil society organizations and philanthropic organizations in the implementation of the new Agenda.
39.    The scale and ambition of the new Agenda requires a revitalized Global Partnership to ensure its implementation. We fully commit to this. This Partnership will work in a spirit of global solidarity, in particular solidarity with the poorest and with people in vulnerable situations. It will facilitate an intensive global engagement in support of implementation of all the Goals and targets, bringing together Governments, the private sector, civil society, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available resources.
40.    We welcome the outcome document of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, held in Addis Ababa from 13-16 July 2015. We recognise the important interlinkages between the implementation of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and the realization of the SDGs and targets.
41.    Official development assistance remains a primary means of supporting the sustainable development needs of countries and regions, in particular African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states and a number of middle-income countries. Developed countries should commit to implement fully their official development assistance commitments. We will accelerate full implementation of the Istanbul Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries, the Small Island Developing States Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway, the Vienna Programme of Action for Land-Locked Developing Countries, the African Union’s Agenda 2063 and the programme of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), all of which are integral to the new Agenda.
42.    We recognize the crucial role that science, technology and innovation play in the promotion of sustainable development in all countries. We recognize the power of communications technologies, technical cooperation and capacity-building for sustainable development. We welcome the establishment of a Technology Facilitation Mechanism in order to support the implementation of the Agenda. We commit to strengthen the role of the science-policy interface in sustainable development.
43.    We are committed to an open, well-functioning, non-discriminatory, equitable and rules-based multilateral trading system for the realization of the new Agenda. We resolve to work together to enhance macro-economic and financial stability through improved policy coordination and coherence. We call on all WTO members to conclude promptly the Doha Development Round of trade negotiations. We attach great importance to providing trade-related capacity-building for African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, small island developing states and middle-income countries, including for the promotion of regional economic integration and interconnectivity.
44.    We recognize the role of the family as a contributor to sustainable development; one measure of success of the Agenda will be its ability to strengthen and protect all families.
45.    We acknowledge the need for international financial institutions to respect the policy space of each country, in particular developing countries. We agree to work to increase the voice and participation of developing countries – in particular African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, small-island developing states and middle income countries – in international economic decision-making, norm-setting and global economic governance.
46.    Many countries remain vulnerable to debt crises and some are in the midst of crises, including least developed countries, small island developing States and some developed countries. We recognize the need to assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief, debt restructuring and sound debt management, as appropriate. We will support the maintenance of debt sustainability of those countries that have received debt relief and achieved sustainable debt levels.
47.    We emphasise the critical importance of engaging all relevant stakeholders in the implementation and follow-up and review of the Agenda. In particular, we acknowledge the essential role of national parliaments in sustainable development through their enactment of legislation and adoption of budgets and their role in ensuring accountability for the effective implementation of our commitments. Governments and public institutions will also work closely on implementation with regional and local authorities, sub-regional institutions, international institutions, academia, philanthropic organizations, volunteer groups and others in accordance with national laws and regulations and in conformity with international obligations.
48.    We underline the important role and comparative advantage of an adequately resourced, relevant, coherent, efficient and effective UN system in supporting the achievement of the SDGs and sustainable development. We express our support for the ongoing process on the longer-term positioning of the UN development system in the context of this Agenda.
Follow-up and review
49.    Our Governments have the primary responsibility for follow-up and review, at the national, regional and global levels, in relation to the progress made in implementing the Goals and targets over the coming fifteen years. We will provide for systematic follow-up and review at the various levels of accountability, including as set out in this Agenda and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. The High Level Political Forum will be responsible for the global follow-up and review processes.
50.    Indicators are being developed to assist this work. Quality, accessible, timely and reliable disaggregated data will be needed to help with the measurement of progress and to ensure that no one is left behind. Such data is key to decision-making. Data and information from existing reporting mechanisms should be used where possible. We also recognize the need for broader measures of progress to complement gross domestic product (GDP). We agree to intensify our efforts to strengthen statistical capacities in developing countries, particularly African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, small island developing states and middle-income countries.
A call for action to change our world
51.    Seventy years ago, an earlier generation of world leaders came together to create the United Nations. From the ashes of war and division they fashioned this Organization and the values of peace, dialogue and international cooperation which underpin it. The supreme embodiment of those values is the Charter of the United Nations.
52.    Today we are also taking a decision of great historic significance. We resolve to build a better future for all people, including the millions who have been denied the chance to lead decent, dignified and rewarding lives and to achieve their full human potential. We can be the first generation to succeed in ending poverty; just as we are the last to have a chance of saving the planet. The world will be a better place in 2030 if we succeed in our objectives.
53.    What we are announcing today – an Agenda for global action for the next fifteen years – is a charter for people and planet in the twenty-first century. Children and young women and men will find in the new Goals a platform to enable them to become positive agents for change and to channel their infinite capacities for activism into the creation of a better world.
54.    “We the Peoples” are the celebrated opening words of the UN Charter. It is “We the Peoples” who are embarking today on the road to 2030. Our journey will involve Governments as well as Parliaments, the UN system and other international institutions, local authorities, business and the private sector, the scientific and academic community, civil society – and all people. Millions have already engaged with, and will own, this Agenda. It is an Agenda of the people, by the people and for the people – and this, we believe, will ensure its success.
55.    The future of humanity and of our planet lies in our hands. It lies also in the hands of today’s younger generation who will pass the torch to future generations. We have mapped the road to sustainable development; it will be for all of us to ensure that the journey is successful and its gains irreversible.
Sustainable Development Goals and targets
56.    Following an inclusive process of intergovernmental negotiations, and based on the Proposal of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals1, the following are the Goals and targets which we have agreed.
57.    The SDGs and targets are integrated and indivisible, global in nature and universally applicable, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities. Targets are defined as aspirational and global, with each government setting its own national targets guided by the global level of ambition but taking into account national circumstances. Each government will also decide how these aspirational and global targets should be incorporated in national planning processes, policies and strategies. It is important to recognize the link between sustainable development and other relevant ongoing processes in the economic, social and environmental fields.
58.    We encourage ongoing efforts by states in other fora to address key issues which pose potential challenges to the implementation of our Agenda; and we respect the independent mandates of those processes. We intend that the Agenda and its implementation would support, and be without prejudice to, those other processes and the decisions taken therein.
Sustainable Development Goals
Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.
Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
1.2  By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
1.3  Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
1.5  By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
1.a  Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
1.b  Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
2.1  By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
2.2  By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
2.3  By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
2.4  By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
2.5  By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agree.
2.a  Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
2.b  Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
2.c  Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
3.1  By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
3.2  By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age
3.3  By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
3.4  By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
3.5  Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
3.6  By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
3.7  By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
3.8  Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
3.9  By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
3.a  Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
3.b  Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
3.c  Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
3.d  Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks
Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
4.1  By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes
4.2  By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education
4.3  By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
4.4  By 2030, increase by [x]per cent the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
4.5  By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
4.6  By 2030, ensure that all youth and at least [x]per cent of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
4.7  By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
4.a  Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
4.b  By 2020, expand by [x]per cent globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries
4.c  By 2030, increase by [x]per cent the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States
Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
5.1  End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
5.2  Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
5.3  Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation
5.4  Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate
5.5  Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life
5.6  Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences
5.a  Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws
5.b  Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women
5.c  Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels
Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
6.1  By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
6.2  By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
6.3  By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse by [x]per cent globally
6.4  By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
6.5  By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
6.6  By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
6.a  By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
6.b  Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
7.1  By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
7.2  By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
7.3  By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
7.a  By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
7.b  By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States
Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
8.1  Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
8.2  Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
8.3  Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
8.4  Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
8.5  By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
8.6  By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
8.7  Take immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, eradicate forced labour and, by 2025, end child labour in all its forms, including the recruitment and use of child soldiers
8.8  Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
8.9  By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
8.a  Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
8.b  By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
9.1  Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
9.2  Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
9.3  Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
9.4  By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
9.5  Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people by [x]per cent and public and private research and development spending
9.a  Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
9.b  Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
9.c  Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020
Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
10.a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent
Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and decrease by [x]per cent the economic losses relative to gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
11.b By 2020, increase by [x]per cent the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, develop and implement, in line with the forthcoming Hyogo Framework, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials
Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities
Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
13.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities
* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation2
14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets
14.c Ensure the full implementation of international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea for States parties thereto, including, where applicable, existing regional and international regimes for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by their parties to those regimes
Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and increase afforestation and reforestation by [x]per cent globally
15.3 By 2020, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world
15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development
15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
15.6 Ensure fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources
15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems
15.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation
15.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities
Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children
16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime  16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration
16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
16.a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
16.b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development
Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
Finance
17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including to provide 0.7 per cent of gross national income in official development assistance to developing countries, of which 0.15 to 0.20 per cent should be provided to least developed countries
17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries
Technology
17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism when agreed upon
17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology
Capacity-building
17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
Trade
17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access
Systemic issues
Policy and institutional coherence
17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development
Multi-stakeholder partnerships
17.16 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships
Data, monitoring and accountability
17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries
Means of implementation and the Global Partnership
59.    We reaffirm our strong commitment to the full implementation of this new Agenda. We recognize that we will not be able to achieve our ambitious Goals and targets without a revitalized and enhanced Global Partnership and comparably ambitious means of implementation.
60.    The Agenda’s goals and targets deal with the means required to realise our collective ambitions. The means of implementation targets under each SDG and goal 17, which are referred to above, are at the core of our Agenda and of equal importance with the other Goals and targets. We shall accord them equal priority in our implementation efforts and in the global indicator framework for monitoring our progress.
61.    We welcome the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development3 held in Addis Ababa from 13-16 July 2015. We recognise the important interlinkages between the implementation of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and the realisation of the Sustainable Development Goals and targets.
62.    This Agenda can be met within the framework of a revitalized Global Partnership for sustainable development, supported by the concrete policies and actions as outlined in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. This Partnership will work in a spirit of global solidarity, in particular solidarity with the poorest and with people in vulnerable situations. It will facilitate an intensive global engagement in support of implementation of all the goals and targets, bringing together Governments, the private sector, civil society, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available resources.
63.    We recognise that each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development and that the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be over-emphasised. At the same time, national development efforts need to be supported by an enabling international economic environment. We recognise the need for increased capacity-building and development support, including for data and statistics to measure progress.
64.    Enhanced international cooperation to promote science, technology and innovation is fundamentally important to achieving our goals. We therefore launch a Technology Facilitation Mechanism in order to support the sustainable development goals, as agreed in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. We decide that the technology facilitation mechanism will be based on a multi-stakeholder collaboration between Member States, civil society, the private sector, the scientific community, United Nations entities and other stakeholders and will be composed of a United Nations inter-agency task team on science, technology and innovation for the Sustainable Development Goals, a collaborative multi-stakeholder forum on science, technology and innovation for the sustainable development goals and an online platform, as detailed in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. The meetings of the forum will result in a summary of discussions as an input to the meetings of the High Level Political Forum, in the context of follow-up and review of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda.
65.    Successful implementation will also depend on the resources, knowledge and ingenuity of business, civil society, the scientific community, academia, research institutions, philanthropists and foundations, parliaments, local authorities, volunteers and other stakeholders. We urge all to embrace our commitment to sustainable development, including by directing investments and activities towards areas that contribute to sustainable development and away from harmful, unsustainable ones.
66.    We will accelerate full implementation of the Istanbul Programme of Action, the SAMOA Pathway and the Vienna Programme of Action. We reaffirm our strong commitment to support Africa’s development, including through implementation of the African Union’s Agenda 2063 and the Programme of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). We recognize the need to help countries in situations of conflict and post-conflict to address their specific challenges and priorities. We also acknowledge the specific challenges facing middle-income countries. ODA providers reaffirm their respective ODA commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries.
67.    We reiterate that this Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals and targets, including the means of implementation are universal, indivisible and interlinked.
Follow-up and review
68.    We commit to engage in systematic follow-up and review of implementation of this Agenda over the next fifteen years. A robust, effective, participatory, transparent and integrated follow-up and review framework will make a vital contribution to implementation and will help countries to maximize and track progress in implementing this Agenda.
69.    Operating at the national, regional and global levels, it will promote accountability to our citizens, support effective international cooperation in achieving this Agenda and foster exchanges of best practices and mutual learning. It will mobilize support to overcome shared challenges and identify new and emerging issues.  As this is a universal Agenda, mutual trust and understanding among all nations will be important.
70.    Follow-up and review processes at all levels will be people-centred and will be guided by the following principles:
a.    They will be voluntary and country-owned, will take into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and will respect national policy space and priorities. As national ownership is key to achieving sustainable development, outcomes from national level processes will be the foundation for reviews at regional and global levels, given that the global review will be based on national data sources.
b.    They will address progress in implementing the universal Goals and targets, including the means of implementation, in a manner which respects their universal, integrated and interrelated nature and the three dimensions of sustainable development.
c.    They will maintain a longer-term orientation, identify achievements, challenges and critical success factors and support countries in making informed policy choices. They will mobilize the necessary means of implementation and partnerships, support the identification of solutions and best practices and promote coordination of the international development system.
d.    They will be open, inclusive and transparent for all and will support the participation of and reporting by all people and all relevant stakeholders.
e.    They will be gender-sensitive, respect human rights and have a particular focus on the poorest, most vulnerable and marginalized groups and those furthest behind.
f.    They will build on existing platforms and processes, where these exist, avoid duplication and respond to national circumstances, capacities, needs and priorities. They will evolve over time, taking into account emerging issues and the development of new methodologies, and will minimize the reporting burden on national administrations.
g.    They will be rigorous and based on evidence, informed by country-led evaluations and data which is accessible, timely, reliable and disaggregated by income, sex, age, race, ethnicity, migration status, disability and geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.
h.    They will require capacity-building support for developing countries, including the strengthening of national data systems, particularly in African countries, LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs.
i.    They will benefit from the active support of the UN system and other multilateral institutions
71.    The Goals and targets will be followed-up and reviewed using a set of global indicators. These will be complemented by indicators at the regional and national levels which will be developed by member states. The global indicator framework, to be developed by the Inter Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators, will be agreed by the UN Statistical Commission by March 2016 and adopted thereafter by the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly, in line with existing mandates. This framework will be simple yet robust, address all SDGs and targets including for means of implementation, and preserve the political balance, integration and ambition contained therein.
72.    We will support developing countries, particularly African countries, LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs, in strengthening the capacity of national statistical offices and data systems to ensure access to high-quality, timely, reliable and disaggregated data. We will promote transparent and accountable scaling-up of appropriate public-private cooperation to exploit the contribution to be made by a wide range of data, including geo-spatial information, while ensuring national ownership in supporting and tracking progress.
73.    We commit to fully engage in conducting reviews of progress at subnational, national, regional and global levels. We will draw as far as possible on the existing network of follow-up and review institutions and mechanisms. Regular national reports will allow assessments of progress and identify challenges at the regional and global level. Along with regional dialogues and global reviews, they will inform recommendations for follow-up at various levels.
National level
74.    We encourage all member states to develop as soon as practicable ambitious national responses to the overall implementation of this Agenda. These can support the transition to the SDGs and build on existing planning instruments, such as national development and sustainable development strategies, as appropriate.
75.    We also encourage member states to conduct regular reviews of progress at the national and sub-national levels which are country-owned and country-driven. Such reviews should draw on contributions from civil society, the private sector and other actors, in line with national circumstances, policies and priorities. National parliaments as well as other institutions can also support these processes.
Regional level
76.    Follow-up and review at the regional and sub-regional levels should, as appropriate, provide useful opportunities for peer review and learning, sharing of best practices and discussion on shared targets. We welcome in this respect the cooperation of regional and sub-regional commissions and organizations. Regional processes can draw on national-level reviews and contribute to follow-up and review at the global level, including at the High Level Political Forum on sustainable development (HLPF).
77.    Recognizing the importance of building on existing follow-up and review mechanisms at the regional level and allowing adequate policy space, we encourage all member states to identify the most suitable regional forum in which to engage. UN regional commissions are encouraged to continue supporting member states in this regard.
Global level
78.    The HLPF will have the central role in overseeing follow-up and review at the global level. It is the forum which will be at the apex of the reviews at all levels. It will work coherently with the General Assembly, ECOSOC and other relevant organs and forums, in accordance with existing mandates. It will facilitate sharing of experiences, including successes, challenges and lessons learned, and will promote system-wide coherence and coordination of sustainable development policies. It should ensure that the Agenda remains relevant and ambitious and should focus on the assessment of progress, achievements and challenges faced by developed and developing countries as well as new and emerging issues. Effective linkages will be made with the follow-up and review arrangements of all relevant UN Conferences and processes, including on LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs.
79.    Follow-up and review at the HLPF will be informed by an annual SDG Progress Report to be prepared by the Secretary General in cooperation with the UN System, based on the global indicator framework and data produced by national statistical systems and regional reviews. Global indicators, recognising national policy space, will provide guidance to national statistical authorities in their development of national indicators. The HLPF will also be informed by the Global Sustainable Development Report, which shall strengthen the science-policy interface and could provide a strong evidence-based instrument to support policy-makers in promoting poverty eradication and sustainable development. We encourage the HLPF, under the auspices of ECOSOC, to agree the scope and methodology of this report at its session in 2016.
80.    The HLPF, under the auspices of ECOSOC, shall carry out regular reviews, in line with Resolution 67/290. Reviews will be voluntary, while encouraging reporting, and include developed and developing countries as well as relevant UN entities and other stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector. They shall be state-led, involving ministerial and other relevant high-level participants. They shall provide a platform for partnerships, including through the participation of major groups and other relevant stakeholders.
81.    Thematic reviews of progress on the Sustainable Development Goals will also take place at the HLPF. These will be supported by reviews by the ECOSOC functional commissions and other inter-governmental forums which should reflect the integrated nature of the goals as well as the interlinkages between them. They will engage all relevant stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector, and, where possible, feed into, and be aligned with, the cycle of the HLPF.
82.    We welcome, as outlined in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the dedicated follow-up and review for the Financing for Development outcomes as well as all the means of implementation of the SDGs. The intergovernmentally agreed conclusions and recommendations of the annual ECOSOC Forum on Financing for Development will be fed into the overall integrated follow-up and review of the implementation of this Agenda in the HLPF.
83.    Meeting every four years under the auspices of the General Assembly, the HLPF will provide high-level political guidance on the Agenda and its implementation, identify progress and emerging challenges and mobilize further actions to accelerate implementation. The next HLPF, under the auspices of the General Assembly, will take place in 2019, with the cycle of meetings thus reset, in order to maximize coherence with the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review process.
84.    We also stress the importance of system-wide strategic planning, implementation and reporting in order to ensure coherent and integrated implementation of the new Agenda by the UN development system. The relevant governing bodies should take action to review such implementation and to report on progress and obstacles. This reporting should be included in the SDG Progress Report. We welcome the ongoing ECOSOC Dialogues on the longer term positioning of the UN development system and look forward to taking action on these issues.
85.    The HLPF will support participation in follow-up and review processes by the major groups and other relevant stakeholders in line with Resolution 67/290. We call on these actors to report on their contribution to the implementation of the Agenda.
86.    We request the Secretary General to prepare a report, for consideration by the 2016 meeting of the HLPF, which outlines critical milestones towards coherent and efficient follow-up and review at the global level. This report should include a proposal on the organizational arrangements for state-led reviews at the HLPF under the auspices of ECOSOC, including recommendations on a voluntary common reporting format. It should clarify institutional responsibilities and provide guidance on annual themes and on a sequence of thematic reviews for the HLPF.
87.    To ensure the full realization of the Agenda, we call on the General Assembly, ECOSOC and their subsidiary bodies, as well as on the specialized agencies to take all necessary measures for the effective, comprehensive and timely implementation, follow-up and review of the Agenda.
We reaffirm our unwavering commitment to achieving this Agenda and utilising it to the full to transform our world for the better by 2030.
– As supplied by Macharia Kamau and David Donoghue, the permanent rep-resentatives to the UN of the missions of Kenia and Ireland.

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